Perceived Internal Employability as a
Strategy to Reduce Employee Intention
to Quit
* PhD in Economic and Business Sciences. Instituto Superior de Estudios Profesionales, Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera,
Valencia, España. E-mail: ORCID: 0000-0002-1248-5063. Google Scholar:
** PhD in Economic and Business Sciences. Universitat de València, Valencia, España. E-mail:
ORCID: 0000-0002-4957-8626. Google Scholar:
*** PhD in Economic and Business Sciences. Universitat de València, Valencia, España. E-mail: ORCID:
0000-0001-8765-9948. Google Scholar:
pp. 7-23
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Vol. 7, No. 1
Enero-junio de 2020
Este estudio analiza el impacto de la empleabilidad interna percibida como un
medio para retener empleados poseedores de capital humano valioso para la empresa. Se
utilizan las percepciones de los empleados puesto que son estas las que determinan las
actitudes y por lo tanto las predisposiciones para actuar, así como los comportamientos
individuales adoptados. La satisfacción laboral y el compromiso organizativo se
proponen como variables mediadoras de dicha relación, pues se han manifestado como
determinantes en la literatura a la hora de explicar el comportamiento de los empleados.
Como variable dependiente se utiliza la intención de renunciar al trabajo dado que es muy
complejo analizar la rotación efectiva de los empleados, la cual depende en gran medida
de las oportunidades que ofrece el mercado laboral. El análisis se lleva a cabo a través de
ecuaciones estructurales en una muestra de 218 empleados. Los resultados muestran que
la empleabilidad interna sí tiene un efecto positivo en una dimensión afectiva combinada
del trabajo, así como esta última dimensión impacta negativamente en la intención de los
empleados de renunciar a su trabajo.
empleabilidad interna, intención de renunciar al trabajo, satisfacción
laboral, compromiso organizativo.
How to cite this article:
Sánchez, Á.M., Revuelto, L. and
Saorín, M.C. (2020). Perceived
Internal Employability as a
Strategy to Reduce Employee
Intention to Quit. Revista
Perspectiva Empresarial, 7(1),
Recibido: 06 de noviembre de
Aprobado: 22 de enero de 2020
This study analyzes the impact of perceived internal employability as a means
to retain employees who possess human capital valuable for the company. Employees’
perceptions are used since these are the ones which determine attitudes and, therefore,
predispositions to act, as well as adopted individual behaviors. Job satisfaction and
organizational commitment are proposed as mediating variables in such relationship,
since they have been mentioned in the literature as determinants when explaining
employee behavior. Intention to quit job is used as dependent variable insofar as it is
very complex to analyze eective employee turnover, which depends to a great extent
on the opportunities oered by the labor market. The analysis is carried out through
structural equations in a sample of 218 employees. The results show that internal
employability does have a positive eect in a combined aective dimension of the job,
and that this dimension has a negative impact on employees’ intention to quit their jobs.
internal employability, intention to resign from work, job satisfaction,
organizational commitment.
La empleabilidad interna percibida como estrategia para reducir la
predisposición a renunciar de los empleados
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Vol. 7, No. 1
Enero-junio de 2020
Revista Perspectiva Empresarial, Vol. 7, No. 1, enero-junio de 2020, 7-23
ISSN 2389-8186, E-ISSN 2389-8194
Empregabilidade interna percebida como estratégia para reduzir a
disposição a renunciar dos funcionários
Este estudo analisa o impacto da empregabilidade interna percebida
como um meio de reter os funcionários com valioso capital humano para a empresa.
As percepções dos funcionários são utilizadas, pois são elas que determinam atitudes
e, portanto, predisposições para agir, bem como os comportamentos individuais
adotados. A satisfação no trabalho e o comprometimento organizacional são
propostos como variáveis mediadoras dessa relação, uma vez que foram mostrados
como determinantes na literatura quando se trata de explicar o comportamento dos
funcionários. A intenção de deixar o trabalho é usada como variável dependente,
pois é muito complexa analisar a rotatividade efetiva dos funcionários, que
depende em grande parte das oportunidades oferecidas pelo mercado de
trabalho. A análise é realizada por equações estruturais em uma amostra de 218
funcionários. Os resultados mostram que a empregabilidade interna tem um efeito
positivo em uma dimensão afetiva combinada do trabalho, assim como essa última
dimensão afeta negativamente a intenção dos funcionários de deixar o emprego.
empregabilidade interna, predisposição para deixar o trabalho,
satisfação no trabalho, comprometimento organizacional.
Revista Perspectiva Empresarial, Vol. 7, No. 1, enero-junio de 2020, 7-23
ISSN 2389-8186, E-ISSN 2389-8194
In today’s working environment, being
employable is almost as crucial as having a stable
job. Indeed, from a long-term standpoint it is
even more so, because in most cases a job is only
stable until it is not. Employability determines a
     
relative ease together with their ability to meet
the requirements of a constantly changing labor
market. This can only be achieved and maintained
through having and continuously updating a blend
of skills, knowledge, experience, aptitudes and
     
the ability to adapt and learn new technologies
and working procedures are key long-term
skills. As a result, employability is a talent that
should be cultivated not only by job seekers
but also by people who are already employed.
It is additionally an opportunity for companies
to reverse, at least in part, the growing trend
towards the development of increasingly negative
attitudes towards work and the company (low
and declining satisfaction and commitment levels,
in addition to an increasing inclination to quit
among key employees) (Pfeffer, 2007).
As it is well known, the Spanish labor market
has changed considerably in a short period of time
due, among other things, to a dominant duality
in labor relations, namely a divide between
precarious jobs and contracts with greater
stability. This complexity means that thought
needs to be given to the relevance of lifelong
learning as a way of updating personal skills and
developing our abilities throughout our working
lives, promoting mechanisms that help stimulate
changes in employees which also engender a
greater intention to stay in a company. From an
organizational standpoint, it is important to try
to reverse, or at least mitigate, the perception
of many employees that the psychological
contract has been breached when they see how
the companies they work for, or are considering
working for, neither want nor in many cases are
able to ensure long-term employment in exchange
for loyalty, commitment and productivity.
It is true that the circumstances of prolonged
economic recession that led to high unemployment,
reduces employees’ expectations and increases
their “obligatory tolerance” for precarious
employment relationships and low investment in
training. However, from a long-term perspective,
companies should consider providing reasonable
rewards in return for what they require from their
employees, such as guaranteeing if not their jobs,
then at least that these employees will maintain
their employability intact or even increase it.
In other words, the implicit promise that if an
employee loses their job at the company, the
training, skills and knowledge they have acquired
one as their employability has been maintained
(Fernández-Mateo, 2002).
The intention would be to build genuine
engagement between organization and employee
with real options for progress for both sides, not
to mention the relevance from the perspective of
internal corporate responsibility. The foregoing
also means that thought needs to be given to the
relevance of lifelong learning as a way of updating
personal skills and developing our abilities
throughout our working lives. Education and
training are consequently essential mechanisms
for promoting employability and thus adequately
coping with a society marked by the constant
evolution of science and technology (Fallows and
Steven, 2000; Nilsson and Ekberg, 2013).
As noted above, the high degree of
uncertainty of contemporary working life means
       
challenges in managing their careers and thus add
to their professional talent (Nilsson and Ellström,
2012) through effective changes in the contents
of their work as well as updating their skills and/
or rotation in various training programs (Riddell
and Sweetman, 2000). Accordingly, the attributes,
skills and knowledge acquired and enhanced by
workplace and/or when switching companies by
promoting the competitiveness of employees and
as a whole (Andrews and Russell, 2012).
In line with these ideas, our research aims to
analyze the positive impact of perceived internal
employability on satisfaction and commitment,
and how these mediating variables negatively
Revista Perspectiva Empresarial, Vol. 7, No. 1, enero-junio de 2020, 7-23
ISSN 2389-8186, E-ISSN 2389-8194
Theoretical Framework: Internal
Employability and Intention to
Quit Relationship
According to Recommendation 195 of
ILO’s Human Resources Development of 2004,
employability refers to the skills and transferable
capabilities, thus enhancing the ability of people
to take care advantage the education and training
opportunities. The aim is to achieve goals such
       
within the company or change jobs and adapt
to the evolution of technology and the different
labor market conditions. Thus, employability
is associated with a multidimensional and
complex concept, in which learning and skills
development is interpreted as continuity (Harvey,
2001). Employability cannot be considered a
full guarantee of actual employment, but it can
increase the chances for it (Nilsson and Ekberg,
In this sense, employability involves
the ability to get a job, within or outside the
organization (Fugate, Kinicki and Ashforth,
2004; Koen, Klehe and Van Vianen, 2013). This
capability also empowers the professionals to
perform a variety of positions and facilitates
their mobility between jobs in the same or
different organization (Morrison and Hall, 2002),
and increases the chances of reemployment in
unemployment situations (McArdle et al., 2007).
Therefore, employability prepares the individual
of their different professional scenarios (McQuaid
and Lindsay, 2005; Nilsson and Ellström, 2012).
We cannot forget the subjective appreciation
that the individual makes about his opportunities
     
of the labor market and certain personal
characteristics (Ripoll et al., 1994). Following
Gamboa et al. (2007), our research focuses
on perceived employability, by relying on the
perceptions that people have about their ability to
obtain an employment.
On the other hand, it notes that internal
employability determines the worker
competitiveness level within the company; it
training needs. This aspect, therefore, bets to
enhance worker’s ability to remain employed
with their current employer (Groot and van den
Brink, 2000). Moreover, Sanders and de Grip
(2004), differ two types of internal employability:
one that allows a professional continues working
in the same job, and one that enables ‘employable’
individuals change jobs within the organization.
of this construct is related to the idea that
workers are considering leaving your current
company, or even their profession (McNatt and
Judge, 2008). This intention is more directly
related to the will and the decision making that
has got the individual to change his attitude
and organizational behavior (Elangovan, 2001;
Campbell and Campbell, 2003), as a result of a
lack of adaptation in labour relations. In line with
this idea, a professional tempted by the intention
to quit their current situation in the company, it
will be more probably that it is more motivated to
investigate new employment prospects in order
       
Czaplewski and Ferguson, 2003).
However, despite the trend of abandonment it
is the most characteristic behavior related to this
construct does not necessarily mean it will happen
(Maertz and Campion, 2004). In this sense, this
intention to leave corresponds to a subjective
estimate and a probability, but not necessarily
to a real fact (García Chas, Neira Fontela y Varela
Neira, 2012). Therefore, while the actual behavior
of abandonment is presented as the ultimate
purpose of the worker, it is rather the intention
which prevails as a strong substitute (Firth et al.,
         
interpreted as an expression of disinterest of
continuing working on it, as a feeling of wasting
time and emotional exhaustion (Jaramillo, Mulki
and Locander, 2006), but not always as a true
resignation, especially if there are no alternatives
in labor market. And, not all factors depend on the
professional. This makes more often the worker
may fall into remarkable job laziness (Mobley,
1982). In turn, this fact increases the absence of
proactive and motivational behavior towards the
organization and other colleagues (Judge and
Klinger, 2007).
Revista Perspectiva Empresarial, Vol. 7, No. 1, enero-junio de 2020, 7-23
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The Mediating Role of Job
Satisfaction and Aective
Organizational Commitment
After study the importance of perceived
that this construct can have on intention to quit
the company is mediated by job satisfaction and
affective organizational commitment. So we
defend that the perceptions that professionals
have around their levels of job satisfaction and
affective organizational commitment are critical
        
(Tymon Jr., Stumpf and Doh, 2010).
Locke (1976) considers job satisfaction as
pleasant or positive emotional state resulting
from the job evaluation or experiences in work.
Therefore, job satisfaction is the emotional
orientation that employees show to their
organizational roles (Kalleberg, 1977). Authors
like Beer (1964) and Peiró (1984) describe job
satisfaction as an aspect beyond feelings and
emotions, as the general attitude that employees
have to work. This element is understood like
subjective and is conditioned by the personality
and the circumstances of each individual,
and the environment changes (Diener et al.,
1985). According to that, the greater or lesser
development of job satisfaction will depend
on the degree of compliance between the
initial aspirations and truly made goals of the
professionals (Pérez Rubio, 1997; Hamermesh,
Rockeach (1973) considers affective
organizational commitment as the emotional
     
has got with respect to their workplace. The
commitment therefore not only is related to the
       
variable also involves emotional and intellectual
connection that the professional has with his
work, organization, superiors and/or colleagues,
thereby generating an additional discretionary
effort into their work (Gibbons, 2006).
As is known, organizational commitment
has three dimensions: affective, normative and
continuity (Meyer and Allen, 1991). However, this
research focuses on affective dimension as the
closest to a positive feeling of general satisfaction
with work. Affective commitment explains the link
that worker must have with the organizational
goals and values, as a result of emotional ties after
satisfy the expectations and needs, especially
psychological needs (Allen and Meyer, 1990). This
affectivity leads to feelings such as care toward
colleagues, feelings of belonging and loyalty
(González and Guillen, 2007).
Perceived Internal Employability
and Job Satisfaction Relationship
People become employable when they are
in position to get a satisfactory job (Hillage
and Pollard, 1998). This statement leads us to
consider that for the development of individual
employability it is important to have a positive
predisposition and take the lead in this effort
(van Dam, 2004; Gamboa et al., 2007). It is also
a matter of personal and professional concern.
Therefore, initiative linked to a good perception of
the labor market opportunities, raises the internal
and external job satisfaction indices (Gamboa et
al., 2007), increasing the probability to get a job
in accordance with the professional preferences.
People with high perceived employability
indices are more actively involved in the different
learning processes of the organization, enhancing
their predisposition to change their present
employment status. In this case, workers state as
a primary objective the satisfaction of their own
professional interest, moving forward in their
desired career plan (Fugate et al., 2004). That is
why inasmuch as the organization involved itself
in this process facilitating continuously new job
opportunities, job satisfaction of their employees
will increase (Álvarez y Miles, 2006).
At this point, we must point out that
the positive relationship between perceived
internal employability and job satisfaction is
strongly supported in the specialist literature.
The promotion of internal employability can
generate higher levels of satisfaction. One of the
main reasons lies in the fact that the employee
     
and that increases the probability to keep his
Revista Perspectiva Empresarial, Vol. 7, No. 1, enero-junio de 2020, 7-23
ISSN 2389-8186, E-ISSN 2389-8194
         
becomes involved in the internal employability
process, facilitating new job opportunities as
a motivational factor, employees’ satisfaction
will be higher (Álvarez y Miles, 2006). The
implementation of career plans following agreed
that involve social and labor internal promotion,
favor the development of subjective well-being,
which is a precursor of job satisfaction (D’Addio,
Eriksson and Frijters, 2007). That is why we pose
the following hypothesis:
H1(+): Employees with higher perceived
internal employability, show higher levels of job
Perceived Internal Employability
and Aective Organizational
Commitment Relationship
Most managers consider that internal
employability promotion, is a key factor, regarding
their most valuable employees, because they
understand that if good external employment
options are available, the risk of brain drain may
be high (Roehling et al., 2000). Without any doubt,
of developing training and development activities
(oriented to employment), that may be able to
boost employees’ affective commitment level
(Fugate et al., 2004; van Dam, 2004), and a sense
of responsibility and obligation (Hutchison, 1997)
or, in other words, a higher level of normative
commitment. Training and development programs
their general labor well-being (Tansky and Cohen,
     
training and development programs for their
present or potential key employees, is strongly
related with internal promotion and virtually zero
voluntary turnover (Benson, 2006). Nevertheless,
      
risk when employees discover a more engaging
external job opportunity. Consistent with this
idea, we consider that, a greater employee control
about its own professional career, may favor to
some extent intention to quit (Ito and Brotheridge,
2005). That is why, in order to avoid this risk, the
organization must invest in activities that can
foster employee loyalty, through incentives and/
or motivating contractual terms.
     
objectives and guidelines, will show a greater
affective committed and a greater willingness
to continue working for the same organization,
because of their greater sense of ownership
(Roehling et al., 2000). In this sense, employees
strongly motivated to display their value inside
       
mean to increase their probability to keep their
current job (Connely and Gallagher, 2004; De
Witte, 2005). That is why we pose the following
H2(+): Employees with greater perceived
internal employability show a greater affective
Job Satisfaction and Aective
Organizational Commitment
From an organizational point of view,
      
construct than commitment (Juaneda y González,
2007). Satisfaction is intrinsically linked to a
       
1976; Baker and Baker, 1999), while commitment
an overall response to the organization as a
whole. These considerations make us think that to
achieve commitment is necessary to build a strong
interaction between psychological well-being and
job satisfaction of employees (Wright and Bonnet,
2007). With this in mind, job satisfaction is seen
as an antecedent of organizational commitment
(Mathieu and Zajac, 1990; Mueller et al., 1994;
Álvarez Pérez, Castro Casal y Vila Vázquez, 2014).
Pfeffer (1994) states that job involvement
of employees is a key element to organizational
success, since more involved employees are
     
with their job (Pérez y de la Garza, 2007). Such
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relevant attitudes and derived behaviors results
in growing performance and organizational
López-Araújo, Osca y Peiró, 2007). All this lead us
to think that employees will decide to commit with
organization if they fell happy and enthusiastic
with it (Mañas et al., 2007). Finally, employees in
positions perceived as enriched, challenging and
less boring may be more predisposed to commit
with their organization (Diego, Diego and Olivar,
2001). That is why we propose the following
greater their organizational affective commitment.
Job Satisfaction and Intention to
Quit Relationship
There are several studies that support the idea
that the greater or lesser degree of job satisfaction
       
the intention to quit, which is a precursor of
voluntary turnover (Clegg, 1983; Williams and
Hazer, 1986; Elangovan, 2001). Nevertheless, an
not necessarily do so if the right conditions are
employment. If the adverse situation persists and/
or it gets worse with time, he will feel increasingly
will not do it if the necessary resources are lacking
(Ladebo, 2005). In this case, instead of leaving
their job, employees may display increasingly
negative and dysfunctional affective behaviors, in
Conversely, job enrichment, the development
of effective participation practices and, in general,
positive experiences at work will lead to better
attitudes (Hackman and Oldham, 1975; Locke
and Schweiger, 1979), a greater global well-
being perception (Judge and Klinger, 2007),
stronger engagement with organization, and
lesser intention to quit job (Scott, Bishop and
Chen, 2003). Consistent with this we propose the
following hypothesis:
H4(-): Employees with higher levels of job
satisfaction show lesser turnover intention.
Aective Organizational
Commitment and Intention to Quit
is negatively related with employee’s voluntary
turnover (Clegg, 1983; Williams and Hazer,
1986; Elangovan, 2001), and intention to quit job
(Ladebo, 2005; Saks, 2006). High performance
work practices systems may favor employee
emotional attachment to organization (Paré and
Tremblay, 2007). These strategies that put a strong
emphasis in human resources, make employees
feel more power and control over their own work,
increasing levels of commitment and decreasing
consequently intentions to leave the company
(Paré and Tremblay, 2007) and can become an
important source of competitive advantage for the
People committed with the organization show
lower levels of intention to quit, either because
they want to stay (affective commitment), because
a sense of obligation (normative commitment)
or because they need to stay (continuance
commitment) (Allen and Meyer, 1990). These
arguments contribute to think that the decision
of leaving the company of employees with high
level of continuance commitment is related with
an external locus of control (Higgins, 1997), and
their decision is driven by job opportunities in the
labor market. Nevertheless, our model focuses
on the affective dimension of commitment,
because we understand that this dimension
is related with internal locus of control. We
consider that as far as the organization invests in
employees’ development, the greater the affective
commitment of these employees will be.
Bloemer and Odekerken-Schroder (2006),
suggest that employees that tend to get involved
with their employer are usually more loyal
employees, both in terms of attitudes (high
organizational commitment) and in terms of
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behavior (low intention to quit and voluntary
turnover). Employees with high level of affective
organizational commitment, are characterized
by a strong internal motivation and a willingness
to promote inside the company (Higgins, 1997;
Meyer, Becker and van Dick, 2006), and show
high levels of performance and low levels of
absenteeism (Meyer et al., 2002; Sallan et
al., 2010). According to the arguments above
mentioned, we propose the following hypothesis:
H5(-): Employees with higher
affective organizational commitment
show lesser levels of intention to quit job.
The hypotheses proposed can be represented
impact of the perceived internal employability on
the ITQ by employees.
In order to empirically contrast the hypotheses
proposed in the theoretical model, salaried
workers employed under contract in private
companies were chosen as the population for the
analysis. The reason is that in these businesses
the efforts made to enhance the employability of
workers as a way to boost competitiveness are
higher. Though no particular sector was singled out,
the idea was for employees to have opportunities
to access training schemes run by the companies
to which they belonged so priority was given to
companies with over 50 employees. Furthermore,
to ensure geographical proximity, the study was
limited to the province of Valencia (Spain). Finally,
a sample of 218 employees was obtained, of which
166 worked in the services sector (76.1 %) and
the remaining 52 in the industrial sector (23.9 %).
Consequently, the sampling error obtained was
The tool used for gathering the data was a
questionnaire sent, through the platform Google
Drive, via e-mail and as a hard copy, to a series
       
our study once we had obtained permission to
carry out the research from the human resources
Measurement of the variables
As said, the information was collected using
a questionnaire which was divided into several
sections matching the various constructs under
study, besides an initial section devoted to general
Figure 1. Impact of perceived internal employability on ITQ. Source: authors’ own elaboration.
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Table 1. Constructs and indicators
Constructs Items Previous studies
5 items
Delery and Doty (1996), Groot and van den Brink (2000), Fugate et al. (2004), Rego and
Souto (2004), Sanders and de Grip (2004), van Dam (2004), De Vos, De Hauw and Van
der Heijden (2011).
Job Satisfaction 6 items
Cammann et al. (1979), Diener et al. (1985), Greenhaus, Parasuraman and Wormley
(1990), Nabi (2003), Chew and Chan (2008), Chow (2009).
6 items
Allen and Meyer (1990), Netemeyer et al. (1997), Yousef (1998), Mellor et al. (2001),
Zaleska and de Menezes (2007), Chew and Chan (2008).
Intention to Quit 5 items
Cammann et al. (1979), Moore (2000), Scott et al. (2003), Castiller (2006), Chew and
Chan (2008), Moynihan and Pendey (2008).
Source: authors’ own elaboration
Statistical analysis
In order to empirically test our hypotheses,
a covariance structure (structural equation)
model for causal analysis was built using the
IBM SPSS Amos 16.0 module. The scale’s internal
consistency or reliability was evaluated using
Cronbach’s alpha statistics. Equal to or greater
than 0.7 were regarded as optimal values
(Nunnally and Bernstein, 1994). However, certain
authors, such as Hair et al. (1999), consider values
of 0.6 and above to be acceptable for studies of an
exploratory nature.
Additionally, an exploratory factor analysis
of principal components was carried out with
the idea of verifying the individual reliability
of each of the indicators with its respective
construct (convergent validity). The criterion
      
form part of the construct is a loading equal to or
greater than 0.7. However, different researchers
suggest that this empirical norm should not be
quite so strict during the initial stages of scale
development, and that loadings of 0.5 are also
acceptable (Chin, 1998; Hair et al., 1999). For this
study, we decided to use an acceptance criterion
of 0.6 for factor loadings.
After initial exploratory factor analysis
     
became clear that the job satisfaction and affective
organizational commitment items appeared to
be related but it was not possible to distinguish
meant that the research model had to be honed,
The set of items selected for the assessment
of the constructs was based on the previous
proposals of literature. However, before
submitting the questionnaire to the companies,
we understood fundamental to resort to a panel
of six experts in the area of Human Resources,
in order to improve the content validity of
the scales (DeVellis, 1991; Alvarado-Herrera,
Bigné and Aldás-Manzano, 2017) and reduce
the ambiguity of the items chosen to measure
each of the constructs (Hardesty and Bearden,
2004). These experts were with more than ten
years of teaching and research experience and
   
      
they were requested about the need to include
additional items, remove statements or change the
wording of any of the items in order to remove any
 
had been decided, based on the suggestions and
improvements from the panel of experts (table 1),
they were assessed using a Likert scale of 1 to 5
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Table 3. Hypothesis and model fit
Table 2. Cronbach’s alpha value
Figure 2. Final research model. Source: authors’ own
Proposed relations
Internal employability ->
H1 (β31) 1.519*** 4.293 Accepted
and AOC -> ITQ
H2 (β53) -0.717*** -10.376 Accepted
Goodness of fit indexes
(model fit indexes)
CMIN/DF 1.686 (<3)
CFI 1.686 (<3)
AGFI 0.826 (>0.80)
SRMR 0.060 (<0.08)
RMSEA 0.056 (<0.08)
Constructs Cronbach’s alpha
Satisfaction and AOC 0.937
ITQ 0.911
However, as can be seen in table 2, the
Cronbach’s values were very high (above 0.75)
for each construct, so it can be stated that the
constructs involved in our hypotheses did meet
the measurement scale’s reliability criteria.
Source: authors’ own elaboration.
*Standardised coecients significant at 90 % confidence level.
**Standardised coecients significant at 95 % confidence level.
***Standardised coecients significant at 99 % confidence level.
Source: authors’ own elaboration.
As a consequence of the above methodological
development and by way of summary (table 3),
results showed that internal employability did
positively and strongly impact on satisfaction and
commitment in the same way that satisfaction and
commitment negatively and strongly impacted on
the intention to quit, thus entailing acceptance
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By way of conclusion, this research has enabled
       
perceived internal employability among workers
and how it reduces their intention to quit. Given
       
suggest that this relationship should be mediated
by job satisfaction and affective organizational
commitment, with satisfaction in turn being an
antecedent of this affective commitment.
      
meant that these mediating variables had to
be grouped together as it was not possible to
distinguish between them. Here it should be
noted that compared with rules and continuity,
the affective dimension of organizational
commitment is the one closest to a positive
feeling of overall job satisfaction. This explains
the employee’s connection with the organization’s
objectives and values as a result of these emotional
bonds forged by meeting their expectations and
needs, especially psychological ones. This makes
       
discriminant validity on the measurement scales
of both constructs as respondents were not able
to clearly distinguish between the two concepts.
This leads us to conclude that internal
employability does have a positive effect on
job satisfaction and affective organizational
commitment. If the company is positively involved
in enhancing employability by continuously
providing employment opportunities, its
employees’ wellbeing and engagement will rise.
While there may be uncertainty at any given time
about guaranteeing long-term employment in
the same company, workers will recognize that
committing to learning and employability is fair
Thirdly, job satisfaction and affective
organizational commitment negatively impacted
on the intention to quit. Consistent with this,
strong levels of wellbeing and engagement in
employees strengthen the whole business over
time by generating lower rates of voluntary staff
turnover and absenteeism.
The academic implications of this paper are
an improved grasp of the proposed model taking
      
perception on employees’ behavior. Although the
literature supports the relationship between each
conjunction of variables, our research also enables
us to empirically test the initial theory and study
the changes that take place due to the adaptation
of the model.
In terms of business implications, this paper
shows how encouraging the development of
internal employability by the company is likely
to result in increased perception of professional
recognition by employees because they can see
that the organization counts on them and their
worth. Such consideration may therefore increase
work engagement rates as well as their satisfaction
contract between employer and employee.
Another of the business implications comes
from the lower intention to quit of employees. If
the company can reduce an employee’s wish to
leave the organization, this will help to diminish
their level of maladjustment to their work and
position, thereby increasing engagement with the
company. This increase in employee commitment
may prevent a rise in organizational costs by
     
and effectiveness.
Regarding the main limitations, we highlight
that although the chosen methodological
approach provides a remarkable richness in
the analysis, it is hard to extract generalizable
conclusions, especially because of the adaptation
of the model of research that has been needed.
Consistent with this, a limitation is found in the
unreliability of some of the indicators with their
respective variables. Consequently, the constructs
of job satisfaction and affective organizational
commitment could not be studied separately.
In line with this idea, we consider that
while the sample is correct, it has certain biases
in size since a larger number of replies would
have strengthened the results and bring greater
consistency to the conclusions. Therefore, a
greater number of responses on the questionnaire
used and the correct reprocessing of the items
appear as essential steps in order to get a better
understanding. Finally, we must also take into
account developments in the labor context
in recent years. The crisis has strongly made
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precarious the work, reducing the opportunities
for improvement. Since we work with perceptions,
it is very likely that this has led employees to have
      
with what they have when comparing with the
situation of others and/or to resign for fear of a
situation of joblessness and uncertainty. Thus, the
As future research, it is essential to rethink
the questionnaire as a measuring instrument,
strengthening and specifying better the
indicators of each of the constructs under study.
The main purpose for this is to allow more
powerful structural equation system utilization
and thereby a greater understanding of the
impact that each proposed relationship exerts
on the organizational reality. It also raised the
possibility of inclusion of new research variables,
to expand and enrich our model and the proposed
cause-effect relationships. As examples of these
additional variables as determinants of perceived
employability could be the age, sex, professional
status, previous experience in a position and/or
similar company, and professional recognition,
among others. Finally, we do not have to forget
the possibility of carrying out the study in other
socioeconomic moment in which there may be
more and better career opportunities. The results
and conclusions obtained could be certainly
changed, and the comparative study between
the different stages could lead to highly relevant
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